Gentianella praecox subsp. bohemica

Gentianella praecox subsp. bohemica is an endemic species of the Czech Massif and a sub-endemic species of the Czech Republic (CZ). Its historical distribution range includes CZ, northern Austria, Bavaria and the south of Poland. It is credibly documented in more than 650 sites in the CZ and a few dozens of historical sites in Austria, Poland and Bavaria. Since 2000, it has been, despite intensive searching, observed only in 111 sites in its distribution range: The Czech Republic – 69, Austria – 30, Germany – 8, Poland – 4. In 2014, 73 recent sites (i.e. after 2000) were known in the CZ, but the flowering plants were observed in 38 sites only. Of this, the 11 SCIs involved in the project, cover 20 of the monitored sites. In the average number of flowering specimens, it is 59 % of the species population in CZ. Total number of flowering plants 574 - 8 685 in project SCIs in the Czech republic vary between particular years.

The decline of the population started approximately in 50´s and was a result of changes in the landscape cultivation. The pastures and allotments extensively grazed by especially the goats and the sheep disappeared relatively fast. After grazing stopped, the stands became denser and the sites overgrew with tree species. Some sites were afforested. The most important part of the life cycle is sprouting of seeds and the seed bank survival. For sprouting of seeds from the seed bank, the limiting factor is thickening of sods and occurrence of mosses. In cultivating the Gentianella meadows, proper timing of mowing is necessary, as during common mowing in the August/September period, there is a risk of deterioration of the plants which start to bloom, are in bloom or ripen. The special management which reflects above negative aspects needs to be applied on the sites with Gentianella.


Osmoderma eremita

The beetles prefer the habitats exposed to sunshine, particularly old trees with cavities, where the beetles mate. Presently, the species occurs locally in the Czech Republic. The highest number of sites and findings is in southern Moravia and southern Bohemia. The species is threatened by removal of old trees (e.g. in parks and forests of its occurrence), disposal of alleys and burning out of tree cavities. In southern the Slovak republic, the core of the populations are found in pollarded willows. Due to abandonment from traditional management (regular pollarding), the willows are gradually dying out and the habitat is getting lost.


Carabus menetriesi pacholei

A relic species living exclusively in original peatbogs and valley and mountain meadows. In the Czech Republic territory it occurs in 3 isolated populations – in mountains Krušné hory (Ore Mountains) , Šumava (Bohemian Forest) and Upper Austria. It is endangered by destruction of peatbogs, mainly due to their draining and intensive extraction of peat deposits. Other reasons include degradation of peatbogs due to inappropriate water regime or overgrowing with the pioneer tree species.


Grassland habitats

6110 - Rupicolous calcareous or basophilic grasslands of the Alysso-Sedion albi

Mostly rupicolous plateaus and canopy gaps or disturbed points in dry grasslands. The species and habitats depending on the calcareous bedrock are relatively rare in the SBR (South Bohemia Region) and thus are given our careful attention. The habitat is threatened by succession and ruderalization.

6210 - Semi-natural dry grasslands and scrubland facies on calcareous substrates (Festuco-Brometalia, important orchid sites)

Dry grassland habitats, mostly on calcareous rocks. In SBR with rare occurrence, only remnants preserved. In the southern Slovak Republic (SK) the sites represent the northernmost border of occurence of several important orchid species, e.g. Ophrys sphegodes, Himantoglossum adriaticum (the only or major sites of their occurence will be restored). In the project are these habitats occured totaly in 20 SCIs (3 SCIs are in CZ: Opolenec, Pastvina u Přešťovic and Nerestský lom; 17 SCIs are in SK).


Forest habitats

91D0 - Bog woodland

The habitat is a set of several biotopes (bog spruce forests, pine mire forests with Vaccinium, birch mire forests and Pinus rotundata forests). Within the SBR, the areas of the habitat with typical species composition diminish, mainly due to drainage, peat extraction, pest outbreaks and natural disasters. Non-original or undesirable species develop at the damaged places. At the same time, the proposed actions target an endemic species - Pinus rotundata.

91E0 - Mixed ash-alder alluvial forests of temperate and boreal Europe (Alno-Padion, Alnion incanae, Salicion albae)

Riparian forests on watercourse banks, forest spring areas and in terrain depressions with high groundwater level or temporarily rising water above the soil surface.

The main negative factor is disturbance to the landscape hydrological regime, e.g. by intensitive regulation of watercourses and draining of lands. A negative impact on the habitat may be caused by overgrowing of the herb layer with ruderal and invasive species, felling of tree species, cutting and planting of spruce and other mono-cultures.

91N0 - Pannonic inland sand dune thicket (Junipero populetum-albae)

Loose forests dominated by white poplars with juniper in the undergrowth. In SK they reach the northern border of occurrence; found only in SCI Čenkov, however in a very bad state, due to intensive forest management, spread of invasive plants and absence of grazing. Typical plant species include Iris humulis ssp. arenaria, Colchicum arenarium, Alkanna tinctoria, Ephedra distachya – all these species occur only in SCI Čenkov in SK.


Salt marshes and peat bogs

1340 - Inland salt meadows

Habitats of halophytic species, periodically flooded and dry in summer, with denser vegetation than habitat 1530 - pannonic salt steppes and salt marshes. Found on heavy clayey soils, typically with low humus content.

1530 - Pannonic salt steppes and salt marshes

Halophytic habitats, typically flooded for a significant period and drying in summer. It is dominated by annuals such as Crypsis aculeata, Heleochloa schoenoides, Chenopodium chenopodioides, Lythrum tribracteatum and typically found on bare soil surfaces or intensively grazed muddy banks. Besides proper water regime and high soil salinity, intensive grazing is a neccessary condition for their survival.

7110 - Active raised bogs

Mountain raised bogs with a thick layer of peat, predominantly supplied by atmospheric water. Constantly high water level prevents the tree layer development. The environment is strongly acidic, oligotrophic to dystrophic. Habitat is threatened by drainage, peat extraction, eutrophication, atmospheric depositions and disruption by heavy machinery. The project focuses on habitats within SCI Pohoří na Šumavě and Rašeliniště Kapličky.